Category Archives: Climate Change & Desertification

The Disappearing Lake Chad and Buhari’s emergency call for action

Buhari orders review of 1920 report on Lake Chad
by Talatu Usman, Premium Times, August 4, 2015.
President Muhammadu Buhari has directed that a Lake Chad report submitted in 1920 be reviewed to salvage the lake from drying up, the permanent secretary of the Ministry of Environment, Fatimah Mede, said Tuesday.
Lake Chad is largest lake in the Chad Basin, and is located mainly in the far west of Chad which shares a border with north-eastern Nigeria.
It is economically important, providing water to over 68 million people living in four countries surrounding it, namely, Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria.
Ms. Mede told journalists that the president gave the directive following his concern that Lake Chad has receded from 33,000 square kilometres about two decades ago to just 300 square kilometres.
The president, Ms. Mede said, complained that the receding lake is adversely affecting the livelihood of those whose economic activities are directly linked to it.
“So he has directed that we should go and look at the report that was submitted in 1920 about how to prevent Lake Chad from drying up, so that the communities around, even border communities, including the countries benefitting from activities of fishermen and livelihood based on Lake Chad, are not affected.


Comments by DEPO ADENLE

Apparently the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Environment is not aware of the wealth of information that is available at the Ministry of Water Resources on the Lake Chad with respect to the Compacts and Agreements on the Chad Basin. (Nigeria is a member of the Lake Chad Basin Commission and has access to the library of this Commission).
If she had discussed with the Water Ministry she would have informed the President that what would be relevant at this time is not just the 1920 report but all literature and proposals on restoring the Lake.
During the time President Obasanjo, the proposal to transfer water from the Ubangui River in the Central African Republic to Lake Chad as a way of saving the Lake was prepared and reviewed by water experts in the Chad Transboundary Basin.
This blogger wrote an article – A Lake Today, a Puddle Tomorrow?: The Case of the Disappearing Chad – in a book edited by L. Jansky, M. Nakayama and J.I. Uito published by the United Nations University in Japan 2002. The article contains a review of what had been done as of that time as well as proposals for action.
Apart from the Ministry of Water Resources, the Lake Chad Basin Commission is a good repository of knowledge on how to salvage Lake Chad. What is needed now is action on the proposals that have been reviewed by water resources professionals in Nigeria and other riparian countries.




2014 Presidential envirronmental preservation budget: A good example of uncoordinated approach to resource management

The idea of throwing huge amounts of money at any challenge without  planned and targeted actions is something that we have to free our country from. The document below on the magnitude of funds thrown at a variety of environmental issues is a case in point. As the Daily Trust puts it, the country plans to spend about N4 billion for environmental preservation in 2014.

The first thing that surprises one from a quick evaluation of the budget is that the whole catalog of what the budget will be spent on shows the usual pitfalls of the approaches to natural resources management  in the country – top-down approach, lack of coordination and lack of consultation.

Furthermore, the list of items on which money will be spent is illogical. For example, at the top of the list N 2.8billion is earmarked for erosion and flood control, while N0.1 billion is also allocated to “installation of additional automated flood early warning systems”. Another example of illogicality is where tree planting is allocated N 0.4 billion in one part of the document while tree planting also shows up under ‘forest resources development, management and tree planting nationwide’ with an allocation of N0.07billion.  I just marvel whether the Osun State School Tree Planting Programme would not achieve better results if replicated in other parts of the country. Little wonder that Dr. Christopher, in his comment below “… said the budget for the environmental sector was full of inconsistency and would not deliver anything new to Nigerians.”

It sounds somehow ridiculous that the government is planning to procure 3 water hyacinth harvester machines when the magnitude of the water hyacinth infestation in the country is considered. Dr.Uk U.N., et al. (2007) noted that based on national survey conducted in 2001, over 30 States out of 36 states and Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria had been infested by water hyacinth. The same authors reviewed several approaches for controlling invasive weeds, such as hyacinth, and seem to favor biological control method after reviewing its efficacy in several countries, such as Argentina, USA, India and the Sudan.

When  the idea of “The Great Green Wall Sahara Project”, one of the items on the budget is considered, one cannot but ask whether the 11 frontline drought and desertification states were consulted. If they were consulted, would it not have  the desired impact if the budget for this highfalutin project is given to the frontline states.

Comments by DEPO ADENLE.

2014: Jonathan budgets N4bn for environmental preservation


 01 January 2014 

 by Isiaka Wakili and Alex Abutu

President Goodluck Jonathan has budgeted a sum of N3.930 billion for the preservation of environment.

The project is to be carried out by the Ministry of Environment in 2014.
This revelation is contained in the 2014 Appropriation Bill which the Coordinating Minister of the Economy and Minister of Finance, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, recently presented, on behalf of the president, to the two chambers of the National Assembly.

According to the bill, the Headquarters of the Ministry of Environment has a total allocation of N8.312 billion out of which N5.411 billion is for total capital and N2.9 billion for total recurrent.
The details of the budget proposal indicate that the President wants the National Assembly to approve N2.8 billion for erosion and flood control, N700 million for industrial pollution prevention and control, N400 million for tree planting and another N30 million for wildlife conservation.

All these are in addition to the N673.499 million which the ministry will spend on research and development, N112 million on monitoring and evaluation and N24.942 million on anniversaries/celebrations.

The ministry has also introduced such new projects as: green village development to combat drought and desertification in the 11 frontline states, N102.250 million; installation of additional automated flood early warning systems, N102.157 million;  renovation and partitioning of the ministry’s central store in Abuja, N10 million; procurement of physical and electronic storage system, N10 million.

The ministry is also embarking on the purchase of law books worth N10 million and establishment of infrastructure in the ministry with N15 million; contribution to international agencies, N30 million; procurement of three water hyacinth harvester machines, accessories and spare parts, N127.501 million; and upgrading/renovation of facilities in the ministry’s auditorium at the Green, Brown and Forestry Building, Abuja, N80 million.

Also proposed as new projects are: forest resources development, management and tree planting nationwide, N70 million; natural resources conservation and development of management plans for forest reserves, N30 million; the Great Greenwall Sahara Programme, N86.122 million; access contribution to multi-lateral environmental agreements, N40 million; establishment of ozone village, N120 million.

The ministry is also set to carry out, as part of its new projects, accreditation programme for environmental consultants, N10 million; advocacy for public and environmental sanitation, N25 million; completion of integrated waste management facility, N90 million; bio-technological rehabilitation of an environmentally degraded site in South-west, N50 million; mapping of charcoal producing areas, N35 million;  establishment of solar drying centre with agricultural value chain, N50 million; among others.

Although listed as new projects, most of the items had featured in the 2013 budget with either higher or lower appropriation: industrial pollution prevention and control got N166 million in 2013, erosion and flood control got N7 billion, tree planting got N129 million and wildlife conservation got N20 million.

Dr Okon Christopher, an environmental activist, said the budget for the environmental sector was full of inconsistency and would not deliver anything new to Nigerians.
“There is nothing different from what was budgeted for the sector in 2013. What is the essence of budgeting when the money will not be made available for implementing the programmes and project contained therein?” he asked.

“If you look critically at the budget you will find that it failed to take into account existing projects which already had funding. The Great Green Wall project was allocated N158 million in 2014 while there is already a N13 billion presidential release for the project since 2013. The country got a World Bank loan of $600 million to tackle erosion but this was not reflected in the budget rather, another N2.8 billion was allocated to erosion control in the budget proposal,” He noted.

Desertification in Nigeria Update:Federal Ministry of Environment Strategies

The Federal Government cannot do it all as regards management of the environment.  In the case of responding to the issue of desertification  in Nigeria it needs the contribution and participation  of the front-line states.

A sector-wide approach, which brings together governments, donors and stakeholders, will be more effective. The strategies that the Federal Ministry of Environment claims to have developed is not  spelt out in this News Agency of Nigeria Report. Any strategy that leaves out other sectors and stakeholders will not achieve desired result. The Ministry of Environment should  involve the LGAs as well as the communities in these front-line states.


Ministry to mitigate impact of desertification on buffer states, says Official

News Agency of Nigeria (NAN),Thu, 04/04/2013
The Federal Ministry of Environment has developed strategies to ensure that buffer states are not affected by desertification battering the frontline states.

Dr Bukhar Hassan, Director, Drought, Desertification and Amelioration Department of the ministry, told the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) on Thursday in Abuja that the the buffer states, also referred to as neighbouring states, comprised Niger, Kaduna, Plateau, Taraba and the FCT.

“The 11 frontline states are on the war front with desertification. Desertification in Nigeria is caused by the moving of the Sahara desert southwards into the country and the first ports of call are these states.

“These frontline states are Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kano, Kastina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe and Zamfara.

“This is where most of our actions are carried out.

“We have also put a lot of efforts in these areas; in the buffer states, we try to reduce the possibility of desertification in these areas, while in the North, we try to restore the degraded areas.’’ he said.

Hassan said it was worrisome that some settlements especially on the borders between Nigeria and Niger Republic had been over taken by the desert.

The director explained that the large population in the settlements was forced to migrate to the buffer states due to the encroachment.

“So, the natural resources in that state now will be under strain and once they are being under strain, the next thing you will realise is that there won’t be any sustainability in the natural resources management.

“And once you don’t have sustainability, the next thing you get is scarcity of natural resources and once you get scarcity, the result of that is anybody’s guess.’’ he said.

According to the director, desertification is making the forests in the frontline states to disappear.

“We cut down trees for cooking and this is made worse by the advancing desert because trees are felled without replacement and it makes the problem much more difficult to solve.

“We also have a lot of influx of people from other states to cut down the trees which they use as cooking fuel and for other purposes.’’ he said.

Hassan observed that such visible effects of desertification had affected the economy of the country.

He stated that the ministry had stepped up awareness campaign on climate change as evident in the increasing desert encroachment

“What we are doing now is that we are talking to stakeholders like the wood sellers association, to make them understand the need to sustain the environment even as they do their businesses.

“We are encouraging them to plant more trees because it is not using firewood from trees that is hurting us but the fact that they do not plant trees to replace the ones they have cut down.”

The director stated that the frontline states would work out a framework that would consist of rules and economic agenda to sustain the environment.

We’re determined to halt desert encroachment – Zamfara commissioner

Last November the Daily Trust [Nigeria] reported that eleven front line states in Northern Nigeria decided  at a the first ever summit to work together to fight desertification.

After that first summit about four months ago, the interview granted by the Zamfara State Commissioner for Environment on the same issue is the first publicized available information.

In the interview reproduced below, the  Commissioner offered insight into the progress made although there are no specifics as regards any concrete thing that has been done.

Zamfara and other front line states need to put forward a strategic plan. In my previous blog I noted that the 11 front line states should not make their coming together a mere political jamboree –…ens-in-zamfara/.

From  the Commissioner’s response to the question about whether the front line states have any long-term plan to arrest desertification, it appears nothing concrete is being done beyond the  thinking stage if all that can be reported relates to how: “We hope to harmonize all the environmental laws as it affects the eleven of us.”

A climate Commission Bill has been approved by the Federal House of Representatives but it is awaiting the President’s signature. If this Bill is signed the  Zamfara Commissioner believes all front line states would use it as a basis for their long-term plans but when this will  happen remains unclear.

One only hopes that an initiative this forward-looking and very beneficial to  several states would not go the way of many Nigerian planned projects.


PS: please see Abass’s comment on the previous blog –…ens-in-zamfara/

We’re determined to halt desert encroachment – Zamfara commissioner

by Tina A. Hassan, Daily Trust, Thursday, 08 March 2012 ,

Desertification is gradually moving southwards – turning vast settlement into deserts, threatening human existence and degrading the environment. In this interview, Zamfara State Commissioner for Environment Mouktar Mahammed Lugga says the eleven frontline states worst hit by desertification in the north are ready to face the threat head on.

What is the visible impact of desertification in Zamfara State?

There are a lot of impacts which vary from place to place. We have some of our settlements that have now been occupied by the desert especially as you move towards the border to Niger Republic. Those were settlements that used to flourish but if you go there now, there are few people; most of the inhabitants have migrated to other areas.

You know we are mainly Fulanis so we have nomadic farmers who are cattle rearers.

Let me tell you something interesting, in the last few months in this region, there has been so much migration of Fulani families to Ilorin, Adamawa and other areas. People are leaving their homes because they no longer have grazing land for their animals and the yield in terms of agriculture has greatly reduced.

Zamfara used to be known for farming a lot of cotton, we even have a textile company which has closed down.

Climatic changes have affected our food production and we mainly do subsistent farming. Our agricultural yield has reduced and even our land has reduced, a lot of it has been taken over by the desert so we seeing a situation where there is little land to be used by larger families.

Another visible effect of desertification is that our forests are also fast disappearing.  We use it for cooking and this is made worse by the advancing desert. Because trees are felled without replacement, it makes the problem more difficult to solve. We also have a lot of influx of people from other states, coming to also fell the trees for firewood and other purposes and supply them to other states.

Our factories have shut down due to lack of raw materials and this means that many people no longer have jobs so there is a high rate of unemployment since we no longer produce the raw materials that would sustain these factories.

These are some of the visible impacts of desertification in our state. We have not been able to do much and really it has altered our economic state that is why we feel we must take all necessary action now to prevent further harm.
It is obvious that the lives of people are affected by this phenomenon. What are you doing in the area of public awareness?

We have a lot of programmes being carried out locally here; we have a lot of awareness on radio for the people to really understanding the adverse effects of climate change on their lives as evident in the growing desert encroachment and to think of sustainability in the way natural resources are used because we have to guarantee continuity from the use of resources in the environment.

We have a lot of things we hope to do. What we are doing now is that we are talking to stakeholders like the wood sellers association,  letting them know that they need to sustain the environment even as they carry out their trade.  We are encouraging them to plant more because it is not using firewood from trees that is hurting us but the fact that they not planting more to replace those ones that have been felled.

We have a programme going on now and this is involving these groups of individuals in tree planting so that they can appreciate that resources have to be rejuvenated. You cannot just take and take from the environment with balancing it.

We are also working with other organizations like the Federal Ministry of Environment to find alternative sources of energy. There are so many sources but the challenge is the cost.

We are trying to see how we can harness these and get our people to start using them. We are doing a lot in this regard and we centre mostly on sensitization in the area of equitable use of resources.

What is the motivation for Zamfara State leading other frontline states to take a stand of desertification?

Let me tell you, it wasn’t a difficult idea to bring together other frontline states because  we are really running out of options, it is either we face the desert and fight it or we keep running until we are extinct.

We can’t keep running away from the desert and the problems that come with it. The motivation is the desperation to get a solution for our people.

We have to do something and we have to do it fast since we cannot continue to run away from it. This is something that is inevitable, the desert is coming to take over so it is either we choose to run and keep running or we stand and confront it but we are brave enough to say that this time around, we would stop running and confront our problem.

Convincing the rest of the eleven frontline states faced with desertification were very easy because they also shared the same passion and the same problem and all that was needed was a trigger which Zamfara State provided.

I can tell you that I find them equally very passionate about the problem, I can even say some of them are more passionate than myself.

Do the frontline states have a long term plan to tackle desertification?

We hope to harmonize all the environmental laws as it affects the eleven of us. We want to have uniform laws and be able to push for legislation that would recognize the fact that we have these problems and accord us with some status of environmentally challenged states because we are truly environmentally challenged.

We cannot hope to achieve much development if the environment is holding us down.

The long term plan is for us to be able to fashion out a standard framework consisting of solutions, rules and an economic agenda tied to the environment because the effect is that once we are able to stop desert encroachment, we are certain that we would see a period of economic boom and the north will be able to go back and take its rightful place in the league of states when it comes to contribution to the national growth.

Is the climate commission bill critical to your course?

I think it is very critical and we are going to identify and concern ourselves with it. We intend to use it as an advocacy tool to get the attention of the presidency.

It is easy for someone to see the bill as not necessary because they are not adversely affected by climate change but I think that is an error and that is really unfortunate because the migration that is happening to us presently where thousands and thousands of our young people are moving to the south is also taking a toll on the region’s resources.

This is unhealthy and no one should sit down and think that it is really none of their business because let me tell you that the temptation and the desperation are there to move to areas that are not feeling the impact of desertification.

Unless everybody is concerned, we would see a lot of influx of people in those states so I think it is everybody’s business.

When we talk of environmental issues, they have no respect to border so this desert would continue to move. If it overtakes the north, it would consume the middle belt and it would continue its southern movement until God knows when.

How do you intend to access international fund to address the problem?

Funding may not be a problem if we are able to show seriousness and the ability to help ourselves before others can also come to our aid.

We are not kidding ourselves that what we set out to do is going to be easy, but what we lack in funds, we make up in sheer determination so we are determined,  and funding is not going to stop us though it may slow us down.

What we have going for us now is that we are a desperate group of people and we are desperate for solutions to solve our problem. We are passionate about what we are doing, we take it as a job and this is coming from the heart and I think it is going to sustain us initially.

1st northern desertification summit opens in Zamfara


Below is the report filed by  Tina A. Hassan for the Sunday Trust of November  20 November 2011. The  report has been reproduced in bold italics as it is contained in the Newspaper and comments on it are given below:

The 11 frontline states affected by desertification in the northern part of Nigeria have organized their first summit to address the challenges of the impact of desertification which has been advancing north due to climate change.

Speaking at the opening of the summit tagged “Nigerian Frontline States Action Initiative on Desertification (NIFSAID)” in Gusau, Capital of Zamfara State yesterday, the governor of the state, Alhaji Abdul’aziz AbubakarYari called on all the 11 states affected by the phenomenon to come together and form a force that would enable them fight desertification and improve the lot of the people.

Represented by the Deputy Governor, Alhaji Ibrahim Wakkala, he said the drive to improve the living standards of the people by reclaiming lost land to desert encroachment has necessitated the coming together of the 11 frontline states to find lasting solutions.

He expressed, “Desertification has displaced thousands of people and the phenomenon is linked to the increasing youth restiveness we are gradually witnessing today.

“It has slowly brought upon us poverty and hunger, loss of biodiversity, arable land among others.”

According to him, “as leaders in the north, we must not sit and allow the desert to overcome us pretending that all is well until the desert strangulates us, let us combat this menace to ensure sustainable development, let’s save our environment from this phenomenon.”

He called for a green friendly alternative which he described as “crucial to the survival of man.”

According to the Commissioner of Environment, Zamfara State, Alhaji Muohtari mohammed Lugga, “the north is on the threshold of making history in Nigeria in tackling the growing menace of desert encroachment. What we are about to do is not an easy task but we must rescue our land from the threat of extinction.”

He urged other commissioners to take the challenge with all seriousness or else “we would continue to run from our home so let’s face it and make Arewa (north) green again.”

That the 11 northern states in the Sahel Belt of Nigeria have decided to fight desertification is a  welcome development. Unfortunately the Sunday Trust reporter failed to give the names of the states. However, I am assuming that he/she was referring to the following states in the North – Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Kastina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe and Zamfara. Apparently what each state has been doing is fighting desertification on its own without knowledge-sharing. In 2002 during the preparation for the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reform Programme, Kebbi State had an elaborate programme to fight desertification. This included planting of quick developing trees that can be harvested for fire wood, planting of trees to stop desert advances southwards, etc. It is commendable that the 11 states have now arrived at a point where coordinated approach is being contemplated.

Desertification has given Nigeria, especially the North enough warning for decades.  Some of the salient points about this warning is contained in a paper written by this blogger (See A Book Chapter, “A Lake today, a puddle tomorrow, The Case of the Disappearing Chad in Africa” in the following publication: presented at the International Conference of the Lakes, UNU/SD/Tokyo, 2001 by Depo Adenle in L. Jansky, et al.) Furthermore, this warning is well spelt out in the Lake Chad Basin Commission Vision 2025. Some of the major problems identified in this Vision are very much similar to those of the 11 Frontline states. Those that are common to the Frontline states are rainfall pattern, drought and desertification, environmental degradation, population and poverty level. Full descriptions of these are given below:

Rainfall Pattern: The rainfall pattern of the Basin is of the Sahelian climatology thus making it highly variable and unpredictable. For instance, in a period of two decades, isoyetal contours of mean rainfall have shiftd to the south by about 180 km. As a result of this shift, areas that used to experience a mean rainfall of 320 mm now receive 210mm.

Drought and Desertification: Rainfall deceits first noticed in 1972 have continued unabated till now (i.e. 1999), although there are occasional overflows of short duration. The cumulative effect of these droughts has led to the shrinkage of the lake.

Environmental degradation: … land degradation, soil erosion, deforestation and bush burning have created serious environmental degradation problems.

Some of these challenges were also revisited at the 3rd World Water Forum where the report of the session on the Lake Chad Region contain some pertinent points on the challenges facing these 11 Frontline States as well as recommendations on what to do to combat desertification.

The challenges listed are:

  • Highly variable and unpredictable rainfall pattern resulting in southwards shift of the isohyetal contours of mean rainfall by about 180 km. in a period of two decades;
  • Rainfall deficits due to drought, giving rise to the systematic shrinkage of the Lake Chad;
  • Population explosion and migration of various water resource users in pursuit of their means of livelihood;
  • Poverty within the region;

The recommendations are:

  • Conservation of the limited water resources of the basin through re-vegetation to improve soil texture, reduce evaporation and evapo-transpiration, and create protected areas;
  • Restoration of the Lake level and its ecosystems;
  • Desertification control through sand dune fixation;
  • Data collection, collation, storage and dissemination; and
  • Regional cooperation.

The 11 frontline states can benefit from a lot of published literature such as “A comprehensive approach to drought and desertification in Northern Nigeria” by E. O. Oladipo and several other publications. In addition, there was even a bilateral agreement between the Israeli Government and Nigeria on “Combating desertification across the northern part of Nigeria.” The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by the parties on August 20 2007 revealed that the “Desert to Food”project will gulp the sum of N1.92-trillion ($15-billion) in two years, while the “Swamp to Food” programme will gulp the sum of N256-billion ($2-billion).

Furthermore, the Federal Ministry of  Environment, during the Presidency of Obasanjo created a Department of Drought and Desertification Amelioration  with two divisions; i). Drought & Desertification Planning and Forecasting; ii). Drought & Desertification Management.

This department provides and delivers the following services:

  • Management of Drought and control of Desertification in Nigeria
  • Consultancies for the Management of Drought and control of


  • Contracts for project relating to Management of Drought and control of Desertification
  • Provide available information and data on Drought and Desertification in Nigeria
  •  Liaison with States Government, NGOs CBOs, Research Institute/Academia etc
  • Collaboration with relevant International organization/agencies such as UNDP, UNEP, UNCCD etc
  • Establishment of nurseries for the production of seedlings
  • Establishment shelterbelt “greenbelt” in the frontline states of northern Nigeria
  • Sand dune fixation/stabilization projects
  • Pilot rangeland projects
  • Community Woodlots
  • Assessment of the distribution and severity of desertification
  • Provision and installation of drought early warning system in collaboration with relevant agency
  •  Model Village Project (integrated management of drylands resources.

In concluding, the 11 Frontline States should take action on already existing published resources and Federal Government initiatives  and implement whatever recommendations are there and make use of the Department set up by the Federal Government to ameliorate the problems of drought and desertification . They should avoid playing politics and engaging in media jamboree and take action on  an important challenge facing their citizens. The first task of the Summit should therefore be focused on building on existing resources and initiatives.

One just wonders why it has taken the “11 Frontline States this long to arrange a summit.